For 26 years, Chilean business tycoon Carlos Cardoen has been unable to travel abroad for fear of arrest.
Mr Cardoen is accused of illegally importing the bomb-making element zirconium from the US, which added a potent incendiary effect to cluster bombs his company, Cardoen Industries, sold to Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi regime in the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1993, Interpol issued an international arrest warrant for Mr Cardoen at the behest of the United States in connection with the charges.
But it was only on 22 March of this year that the US Department of Justice finally filed a formal request for the 77-year-old businessman to be detained.
Chile’s Supreme Court has ordered that he be held under house arrest, giving the US 60 days to formalise the extradition.
Mr Cardoen insists that the bombs were sold to Iraq with the full knowledge and acceptance of the US, and his lawyers are fighting the extradition request.
Since the Interpol “red notice” was issued, Mr Cardoen has channelled his time and considerable wealth into promoting his home region in the Colchagua valley and preserving the cultures of Chile’s native peoples.
The latter has won him sweeping acclaim and saw him decorated with the Gabriela Mistral Order of Educational and Cultural Merit in 2005. Announcing Mr Cardoen as the winner, the then-education minister, Sergio Bitar, said that “nobody on Earth is an angel”.
Tribute to miners
Mr Cardoen has put his home town of Santa Cruz “on the map”, according to his son Andrés, who runs the family’s foundation.
“My father’s museum has driven interest in the region,” he says of Mr Cardoen’s private collection of artefacts, one of the largest in South America.
Among the items on display in Mr Cardoen’s Colchagua Museum is the original document drawn up at the first meeting of Chile’s government in 1810.
It also boasts one of the largest collections of indigenous Mapuche jewellery and an extensive audiovisual tribute to the 33 Chilean miners who were trapped underground for 69 days in 2010 and their rescuers.
“My father is not the type of collector whose possessions are contained by four walls. He wants to share, that is his passion,” explains Andrés Cardoen.
Wine, cars and arms
A short drive along the valley is what Luís Navarra at the Santa Cruz tourist office describes as “the “Disneyworld of wine”.
Sprawling across more than one million hectares, Mr Cardoen’s vineyard, Viña Santa Cruz, is the epicentre of his efforts to add winemaking to the area’s attractions.
A cable car takes tourists up to a plateau above Mr Cardoen’s automobile museum, where one of the four DeLoreans modified for the 1985 film Back to the Future is on display alongside an array of classic cars.
While many Chileans appreciate Mr Cardoen’s efforts to share his treasures with the people of Santa Cruz, his pioneering role in Chile’s private arms industry has long been contentious.
Daniel Prieto, a defence analyst and lecturer in global politics who worked with Mr Cardoen until 1985, says that Cardoen Industries had been developing weapons for defensive purposes since the late 1970s while tensions with neighbouring Argentina were running high.
During the rule of Gen Augusto Pinochet, Chile was unable to import arms due to an international embargo and with the two neighbours at the brink of war in 1978, developing Chile’s private arms industry became of key importance.
“[The weapons] were manufactured to defend Chile,” Mr Prieto says. “But when the Falklands War broke out [in 1982 between Argentina and the UK], the Argentine threat dissipated.”
Mr Prieto says there was much discussion as to what Cardoen Industries should do with its arms technology. Eventually, it was decided that foreign markets would be sought for the hardware.
One of those foreign markets was Iraq. Mr Cardoen insists that the bombs his company manufactured for use in Iraq from 1982 until 1991 were sold with the full knowledge and acceptance of the US.
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But when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in August 1990 catalysing a US-led counter offensive, the US position shifted, Mr Prieto says.
“By then I had left Cardoen Industries, but I could see from the outside how the US attitude towards Carlos had changed, and they bombed two manufacturing plants he had in Iraq.”
The US also confiscated properties owned by Mr Cardoen in Miami. It is not clear why the US did not request Mr Cardoen’s extradition at the same time as it asked Interpol to issue the international arrest warrant, but the long delay has not gone unnoticed.
“[The US] has demanded [Mr Cardoen’s] detention with a view to extradition almost 26 years after the initial indictment was made,” Mr Cardoen’s lawyer, Joanna Heskia, says.
“It is a request based on crimes that do not exist in Chile and thus cannot be prosecuted,” she argues. But US officials are adamant that Mr Cardoen should stand trial in the US for allegedly breaking custom rules by falsely stating that the zirconium his company imported was for civilian, not military use.
Ms Heskia says that Mr Cardoen’s legal team “hopes to prove through judicial means that the accusations made against Mr Cardoen are arbitrary and illegitimate and that they have contributed to Interpol sustaining an illegal red alert against him for more than a quarter of a century”.
Despite the long-standing Interpol notice, support for Mr Cardoen within Chile has remained resolute throughout the decades, with each of the country’s three most recent presidents all showing him their support.
Just two months before the US filed its detention request, a group of 23 senators urged President Sebastián Piñera to support Mr Cardoen against the “illegal” prolongation of the notice.
The curator of the Colchagua Museum, Marcelo Santander, insists that “Carlos is one of the individuals who has done most to preserve our country’s culture”.
Mr Cardoen maintains that he was victimised by the US but remains defiant.
While awaiting Chile’s decision on whether he will be extradited to the US, he told the local press: “I sold to the Iraqi regime with the total support of [the US. However,] the political winds changed, and they came looking for a scapegoat.”